Saturday, May 23, 2020

Last Names or Surnames in Spanish

Last names, or surnames, in Spanish arent treated the same way as they are in English. The differing practices can be confusing for someone unfamiliar with Spanish, but the Spanish way of doing things has been around for hundreds of years. Traditionally, if John Smith and Nancy Jones (who live in an English-speaking country) get married and have a child, the child would end  up with a name such as Paul Smith or Barbara Smith. But its not the same in most areas where Spanish is spoken as the native language. If Juan Là ³pez Marcos marries Marà ­a Covas Callas, their child would end up with a name such as Mario Là ³pez Covas or Katarina Là ³pez Covas. How Do Spanish Last Names Work? Confused? Theres a logic to it all, but the confusion comes mostly because the Spanish surname method is different than what youre used to. Although there are numerous variations of how names are handled, just as there can be in English, the basic rule of Spanish names is fairly simple: In general, a person born into a Spanish-speaking family is given a first name followed by two surnames, the first being the fathers family name (or, more precisely, the surname he gained from his father) followed by the mothers family name (or, again more precisely, the surname she gained from her father). In a sense, then, native Spanish speakers are born with two last names. Take as an example the name of Teresa Garcà ­a Ramà ­rez. Teresa is the name given at birth, Garcà ­a is the family name from her father, and Ramà ­rez is the family name from her mother. If Teresa Garcà ­a Ramà ­rez marries Elà ­ Arroyo Là ³pez, she doesnt change her name. But in popular usage, it would be extremely common for her to add de Arroyo (literally, of Arroyo), making her Teresa Garcà ­a Ramà ­rez de Arroyo. Sometimes, the two surnames can be separated by y (meaning and), although this is less common than it used to be. The name the husband uses would be Elà ­ Arroyo y Là ³pez. You may see names that are even longer. Although it isnt done much, at least formally, it is possible also to include grandparents names in the mix. If the full name is shortened, usually the second surname name is dropped. For example, Mexican President Enrique Peà ±a Nieto is often referred to by his countrys news media simply as Peà ±a when he is mentioned a second time. Things can get a bit complicated for Spanish-speaking people living in places such as the United States, where it is not the norm to use two family names. One choice many make is for all family members to use the fathers paternal family name. Also quite common is to hyphenate the two names, e.g., Elà ­ Arroyo-Là ³pez and Teresa Garcà ­a-Ramà ­rez. Couples who have been in the United States a long time, particularly if they speak English, are more likely to give their children the fathers name, following the dominant U.S. pattern. But practices vary. The practice of a person being given two family names became the custom in Spain largely because of Arabic influence. The custom spread to the Americas during the years of Spanish Conquest. Spanish and Mexican Last Names With Celebrities You can see how Spanish  names are constructed by looking at the names of several famous people born in Spanish-speaking countries. Fathers names are listed first: The full name of singer Shakira is Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll. She is the daughter of William Mebarak Chadid and Nidia del Carmen Ripoll Torrado.The full name of actress Salma Hayek is Salma Hayek Jimà ©nez. She is the daughter of Sami Hayek Domà ­nguez and Diana Jimà ©nez Medina.The full name of actress Penà ©lope Cruz is Penà ©lope Cruz Sà ¡nchez. She is the daughter of Eduardo Cruz and Encarnacià ³n Sà ¡nchez.The full name of Cuban President Raà ºl Castro is Raà ºl Modesto Castro Ruz. He is the son of à ngel Castro Argiz and Lina Ruz Gonzà ¡lez.The full name of pop singer Enrique Iglesias is Enrique Iglesias Preysler. He is the son of Julio Josà © Iglesias de la Cueva and Marà ­a Isabel Preysler Arrastia.The full name of Mexican-Puerto Rican  singer Luis Miguel is Luis Miguel Gallego Basteri. He is the son of Luis Gallego Sanchez and Marcela Basteri.The full name of Venezuelan President Nicolà ¡s Maduro is Nicolà ¡s Maduro Moro. He is the son of Nicolà ¡s Ma duro Garcà ­a and Teresa de Jesà ºs Moro.The full name of singer and actor Rubà ©n Blades is Rubà ©n Blades Bellido de Luna. He is the son of Rubà ©n Darà ­o Blades and Anoland Dà ­az Bellido de Luna.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Schizophreni A Mental Disorder Essay - 1278 Words

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that takes over a patient’s body and mind. Schizophrenia’s causes and mechanisms remain poorly understood, and the most common treatments do little to restore patients health (Kurtz 7). Schizophrenia affects the person’s brain and ability on to think and function. People with Schizophrenia have voices inside their heads telling them to do things they don t want to. People with schizophrenia are not eligible to control the things they do or say. Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that takes a toll over the patient’s physical, mental, and social life. Schizophrenia causes physical changes that can be life threatening. Schizophrenia can be life threatening because you can put yourself and others in danger. According to (Nark 7), in a study that was conducted, Geraldine, a mom, put locks on the doors because she feared Brenda Cherry-Hamilton, 48, of Ohio (Nark7). She stated that she was scared to death of her (Nark 8). She cla imed, according to an affidavit of probable cause, that she did something and alluded to some violent acts in her past (Nark31). People with schizophrenia do not mean to do harm to a person, but those voices in their head tells them to do things that they do not want to do. The voices that the person was hearing are not real voices, but rather voices that are actually hallucinations and delusions that takes over the person’s mind and body. People often categorize people with schizophrenia as paranoid, disorganized, orShow MoreRelatedSchizophreni A Mental Disorder1048 Words   |  5 Pages Schizophrenia is in a mental disorder classification on its own. Schizophrenia is said to possibly date as far back as Egyptian times. Although it may date back to ancient times, the first belief was that the person was possessed by a demon or was being punished for not obeying the God’s wishes. Schizophrenia has not always had that name. The term used before Eugene Bleuber renamed it was called dementia praecox. Arnold Pick was actually the first one to name the disorder dementia praecox but wasRead MoreSchizophreni A Mental Disorder Essay1427 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that often appears in someone’s early adulthood stage, but it can emerge at any point of time in life. This disorder affects the brain and is considered as psychosis, which is a type of mental illness that makes people with it unable to differentiate between reality and imagination. The first person to identify schizophrenia as a mental illness was German physician Dr. Emile Kraepelin in 1887 and categorized it as dementia that occurs early in lifeRead MoreSchizophreni A Mental Disorder904 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia is a chronic mental illness that affects approximately 1% of people around the world, and more than two million citizens in the U.S. alone (Dryden-Edwards). This illness is seen to affect men more often than woman. Schizophrenia is one of many psychotic mental disorders and usually presents with symptoms including behavior, thought, and social issues. Many people would describe schizophrenia more simply as a mental disor der that is characterized by abnormal social behavior which leavesRead MoreSchizophreni A Distinct Mental Disorder862 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia Deemed as the disorder with no preference, schizophrenia has followed mankind since the times of Ancient Egypt (2000, Okasha) under the broad term of â€Å"madness† yet it was not officially recognized until 1887 when Dr. Emile Kraepelin issued it a distinct mental disorder (2012, Burton). Widely thought to be a split personality disorder, it has in fact nothing to do with multiple personality conditions but instead, schizophrenia is an extreme thought disorder that causes disconnected thoughtsRead MoreSchizophreni A Severe Mental Disorder2078 Words   |  9 PagesDefinition Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by some, but not necessarily all, of the following features: emotional blunting, intellectual deterioration, social isolation, disorganized speech, behavior delusions, and hallucinations. Delusions are beliefs that are not true, like people are trying to hurt them, believing other people can read their mind, or they have special abilities or powers. Hallucinations are hearing voices that are not there. People with schizophrenia mayRead MoreSchizophreni A Severe Mental Disorder2469 Words   |  10 PagesDefinition Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by some, but not necessarily all, of the following features: emotional blunting, intellectual deterioration, social isolation, disorganized speech, behavior delusions, and hallucinations. Delusions are beliefs that are not true, like people are trying to hurt them, believing other people can read their mind, or they have special abilities or powers. Hallucinations are hearing voices that are not there. People with schizophreniaRead MoreSchizophreni A Severe And Disabling Mental Disorder924 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia is a severe and disabling mental disorder, affecting approximately one percent of the world s adult population. Researcher say there are several of causes for this disorder, for instance genetics, substance use, or even the environment. As research began we found that, â€Å"schizophrenia can occur at any age, the average age begin in the late teens to the early 20s for men, and the late 20s to early 30s f or women† (NAMI). As said this disorder can go both ways with either women or men

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Animal Farm By George Orwell - 1479 Words

Maya Martinez Ms. Vanden Branden/ Ms. Mann World Lit, Per. 2 Due: Monday 11, 2015 Animal Farm Animal Farm, by George Orwell, demonstrates how animals who were mistreated by humans and could no longer endure the pain. One night the animals take over a farm because they are frustrated about being mistreated and forgotten. The animals run the humans off the farm and change the name from Manor Farm to Animal Farm . The oldest pig, Old Major, is the one that starts the rebellion. He gives the other animals an idea of what a farm should look like, how animals should be treated, and how humans are the enemies. Once Old Major dies, Napoleon and Snowball, both pigs, have different ideas of what they want Animal Farm to be like. Napoleon is evil and wants to be the only one in charge of the animals, so he exiles Snowball. Napoleon changes everything to contradict what the rebellion was originally about. When Napoleon comes to power, he leads Animal Farm to corruption and damage. Those who are power hungry will most likely misuse their power and make it into something evil. Orwell emp hasizes this in his novel Animal Farm through the actions of the pigs. Greediness is developed throughout the novel Animal Farm. The more power you have the more you will be greedy with your belongings, and the less feelings he or she will have for others with less material objects. This is displayed through the starvation of the animals. â€Å"The men had milked the cows in the earlyShow MoreRelatedAnimal Farm And George Orwell By George Orwell1034 Words   |  5 Pages Eric Arthur Blair, under the pseudonym of George Orwell, composed many novels in his lifetime that were considered both politically rebellious and socially incorrect. Working on the dream since childhood, Orwell would finally gain notoriety as an author with his 1945 novel Animal Farm, which drew on personal experiences and deeply rooted fear to satirically critique Russian communism during its expansion. Noticing the impact he made, he next took to writing the novel 1984, which similarly criticizedRead MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell1397 Words   |  6 PagesAn important quote by the influential author of Animal Farm, George Orwell, is, â€Å"Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism.† George Orwell, a Democratic Socialist, wrote the book Animal Farm as an attack on the Communist country of Russia (â€Å"The Political Ideas of George Orwell,† worldsocialism.org). He had a very strong disliking of Communism and the Socialist party of Russia. However, he insisted on finding the truthRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell1545 Words   |  7 Pagesallow because an this elite institution of people often use this gear to dominate and oppress society. In George Orwell’s story, Animal Farm, Orwell demonstrates that education is a powerful weapon and is a device that can be used to at least one’s benefit. Living in a world where strength is a straightforward to benefit, the pigs quick use education to govern the relaxation of the animals on the farm to serve themselves worked to their advantage. This story in shows the underlying message that   firstRead MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell944 Words   |  4 Pageslegs(Orwell 132). He carried a whip in his trotter(Orwell 133). In the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell, animals have the ability to talk and form their own ethos, Animalism. Animal Farm is an intriguing allegory by George Orwell, who is also th e author of 1984, includes many enjoyable elements. More knowledge of the author, his use of allegorical elements, themes, symbols, and the significance in the real world, allows the reader to get more out of this glance into the future. George OrwellRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell876 Words   |  4 Pagesrebellious animals think no man means freedom and happiness, but they need to think again. The animals of Manor Farm rebel against the farm owner, Mr. Jones, and name it Animal Farm. The animals create Animalism, with seven commandments. As everything seems going well, two of the animals get into a rivalry, and things start changing. Food starts disappearing and commandments are changed, and the power begins to shift. Father of dystopian genre, George Orwell writes an interesting allegory, Animal FarmRead MoreAnimal Farm by George Orwell1100 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction: Widely acknowledged as a powerful allegory, the 1945 novella Animal Farm, conceived from the satirical mind of acclaimed author George Orwell, is a harrowing fable of a fictional dystopia that critiques the socialist philosophy of Stalin in terms of his leadership of the Soviet Union. Tired of their servitude to man, a group of farm animals revolt and establish their own society, only to be betrayed into worse servitude by their leaders, the pigs, whose initial virtuous intentionsRead MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell1538 Words   |  7 PagesMecca Animal Farm The Russian Revolution in 1917 shows how a desperate society can be turned into a military superpower filled with terror and chaos. George Orwell uses his book, Animal Farm, to parallel this period of time in history. This book is an allegory of fascism and communism and the negative outcomes. The animals begin with great unity, working toward a common goal. The government then becomes corrupted by the temptations of power. George Orwell uses the characters in Animal Farm to showRead MoreAnimal Farm by George Orwell1175 Words   |  5 PagesAn enthusiastic participant in the Spanish civil war in 1936, George Orwell had a great understanding of the political world and made his strong opinions known through his enlightening literary works, many of which are still read in our modern era. Inspired by the 1917 Russian Revolution and the failed society it resulted in, Animal Farm by George Orwell is an encapsulating tale that epitomises how a free utopian society so idealistic can never be accomplished. The novella exemplifies how influencesRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell1089 Words   |  5 PagesIn George Orwell’s â€Å"Animal Farm†, the pigs as the farm leaders, use unknown language, invoke scare tactics and create specific laws, thereby enabling them to control other animals, to suit their greedy desires, and to perform actions outside their realm of power. Because of the pigs’ use of broad language, and the implementation of these tactics they are able to get away with avoiding laws, and are able to convince other animals into believing untrue stories that are beneficial to the pigs. The firstRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell1212 Words   |  5 PagesShe stood there over the dead animals thinking to herself what have we come to? We try to become free but we just enslave ourselves to a so called superior kind. Napoleon killed the animals in front of the whole farm and said that this was to be the punishment for the traitors. Snowball was known as a traitor now and anyone conspiring with him would be killed. Snowball and Napoleon both represent historical characters during the Russian revolution in 1917.Snowball who was one of the smartest pigs

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Graduation Speech Many Chapters Yet to Write

The fairy tales that forever touch the strings of the human heart have one thing in common: a happy ending. For dramatic effect, the speech you are about to hear begins with one. When we dare to venture into the past to find inspiration for the future, we are inevitably bound to face the moments we’d much sooner forget. Our repeated experience has shown that we are more inclined to find profundity in our seconds of misery and suffering than in years and years of commonplace encounters. It is with that fact in mind that I ask you to imagine this very room, and this very ceremony as it stood exactly five years ago today –Sunday, June 11, 1995. As I imagine it, the scene is no different than the one that extends before me today: an†¦show more content†¦All that remains to be said of the struggle that ensued is embodied here, before your very eyes. As the sole artifact of victory, I unearth the demons of my past not to depress you with sorrow or to impress you with triumph; I hope only to stand here today to bear humble witness to the preciousness of every instant, and to the speed with which the gift of life may be revoked. As this tale of survival is my happy ending, for all of us, this commencement ceremony must also foretell a new beginning. We must today come to terms with the fact that we all have faced – and survived – one of the most difficult and comprehensive curriculums this nation has to offer. As our reflections of this past prepare us to face the future, whispers of success inevitably break the silent moment of contemplation. For indeed, it is all too easy to be swept away in the seductions of a golden tomorrow; now is our brief opportunity to survey the landscape and see just how high our mountains will rise. I make it my duty today, in these short minutes, to disrupt briefly the illusion of our daydreams and to focus our attentions on the reality of the path ahead. As I intend my personal tale to illustrate, the unfolding of life is barely linear, and the trail to the top of our mountains of success is never unobstructed. The message is sobering, but hardly intended to discourage. Instead, the fleeting frailty of our own existence, theShow MoreRelatedPublic Speech On Public Speaking901 Words   |  4 Pagespublic speaking. A guest speaker coming to talk to our class, the priest giving a homily at mass, large assemblies with inspirational speakers, and our graduation speech are a few examples that come to mind. Although it seems like only famous people or teachers ever have to speak in public, in reality, almost everyone will have to give a speech in front of a large group at some point in their lives. This is why public speaking is a required course for most students. Public speaking is importantRead MoreGeneral Douglas Macarthur s Duty, Honor, Country ``1359 Words   |  6 PagesThe Speech â€Å"Duty, Honor, Country† was delivered by General Douglas MacArthur to the Cadets of the Military Academy in West Point, New York. General Douglas MacArthur was being awarded with the Sylvanus Thayer Award to commend the General for all his hard work and devotion to the Military. The Award is a memorable tribute to the ideals that inspired the late General Sylvanus Thayer, who was also known as â€Å"the Father of West Point†. In General Douglas MacArthur’s â€Å"Duty, Honor, Country† speech, he usedRead MoreThe 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens800 Words   |  4 P agesAs a bestselling novel, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens by Sean Covey challenges students to become better versions of themselves through a methodology of intra- and interpersonal exercises taught by many religions and self-help programs around the globe. In this book, readers are taught that prioritizing, proactivity, good communication and intrapersonal strength are all equally important, and that one must achieve inner determination and self esteem before their relationships can be healthyRead MoreGraduation Speech1128 Words   |  5 PagesSasenarine Tomby Graduation Speech 2011 Good afternoon [name of members of the head table], teachers, parents, students, fellow graduates and distinguished guests. I must first and foremost thank God for this blessing and honor to stand before you today as Valedictorian of the Class of 2011. Yet, today is not only my day to shine. Every graduate present here is deserving of high praise and recognition and I would like to congratulate each of you on reaching this milestone in life. IRead MoreThe Adoption Of The Common Core State Standards3072 Words   |  13 Pagesstandards aim is to align instruction with this framework so that many more students than at present can meet requirements of college and career readiness (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010a, p. 5). With this end in mind, there should be a renewed focus on the importance of career and technical education in schools and a clear vision of how these courses are articulated to assist with work and vocational aspirations upon graduation and beyond. â€Å"T he adoption and implementation of the CCSS coincidesRead MoreChicanismo in Burciaga ´s Drink Cultura1162 Words   |  5 Pagesoutcome, we can go into a lot of resentment towards other people, and think to ourselves at some point that we are worthiness. In chapter â€Å"The Motherland† the author talks about the pride people take about being Latinos, he talks about being back in Mexico and how it’s all so different once you’ve lived on the other side, a quote that gives you a mental picture would be â€Å"Many white Euro-Mexican will shrug their shoulders, declare they are 100 percent Mexican do not partition or categorize their ancestryRead MoreHello Essay8946 Words   |  36 PagesRon Suskind Chapter by chapter summary posted by jasemonet on 4/21 2:43 PM A Hope In The Unseen By Ron Suskind Chapter by chapter summary A Hope In the Unseen is an amazing book; it deals with race and class. I typed up the notes chapter by chapter. There not extremely detailed summaries, but it can be helpful to anyone who needs a review on the chapters of the book. Chapter 1 Ââ€" Something to push against Chapter 2 Ââ€" Dont let them hurt your children Chapter 3 Ââ€" Rise andRead MoreAcademic Education And Academic Schools2036 Words   |  9 Pagescountry (Tomar). For decades, Harvard and the rest of the â€Å"Ivy League† have been the top academic schools in the country, but our they the overall best schools for our students to attend? These schools are academically incomparable, but there are also many drawbacks to these prestigious institutions. Researchers have seen by analyzing graduates of the top tier schools and current students that they are intellectual, but their performance in the workplace and in social settings do not live up to theirRead MoreEssay about The Color of Water7106 Words   |  29 Pagesmother’s perspective, Ruth, and the other from the son’s perspective, James. 2. What is the ethnic background of the author? * The ethnic background of the author is Caucasian and African-American. Chapter 1: Dead 1. Why is this chapter written in italics? * This chapter was written in Italics because it was written from a different point of view which was Ruth’s perspective who talks about her past as a child. 2. Why is the mother reluctant to talk about her family? *Read MoreLanguage of Advertising20371 Words   |  82 Pagespeculiarities of advertising language are the subject of this graduation paper. At the beginning, in the first chapter is given a general definition of advertising language, its history. The second chapter is types of advertising (consumer advertising, media of consumer advertising). In the third chapter we consider slogans, logos, types with tone and some thoughts of colour. In the fourth chapter we study advertising as a service. The fifth chapter includes new agencies such as newspapers, periodicals,

Origins and Causes of the Cold War Free Essays

————————————————- Why the iron curtain descended: origins and causes of the cold war ROHAN SINGH SEPTEMBER 2012 Name of University: The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences Subject:Political Science Date of Submission:1st October, 2012. â€Å"Why the Iron curtain descended†: A study into the origins and causes of the cold war INTRODUCTION On April 16, 1947, Bernard Baruch, former advisor to former U. S. We will write a custom essay sample on Origins and Causes of the Cold War or any similar topic only for you Order Now Presidents, Harry Truman and Woodrow Wilson came up with the term ‘Cold War’ to describe the breakdown in relations between the two superpowers at the time-the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Historian Walter Lippman, his friend used it in the New York herald Tribune-which marked it’s introduction in popular media. This mutual antagonism between the two nations manifested itself, not in all-out war but in attacks through economic sanctions, proxy wars, the building of alliances propaganda warfare, enmeshed in an overarching principle of non-cooperation. In this context, before delving into the causes, which this essay seeks to do, it is imperative to note that the fact that the two superpowers fought on the same side during World War II was nothing but a ‘marriage of convenience,’ where they were united against the common enemy rather than on grounds of a common cause. The suspicions, ensuing due to the differences in ideology and motives on the global scale had not been occluded by any means, merely erased for the time being. ‘THE BREAKDOWN OF ‘THE MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE’ To fully understand the origins of the Cold War and the breakdown in relations,it is necessary for us to consider the Yalta, Potsdam and Tehran conferences that occurred towards the dying stages of the Second World War. The Tehran Conference held in 1943 was attended by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin and even though, the leaders went to Tehran with different goals in mind, the quintessential objective, which was to open a second front against Germany, was achieved. The ‘big three’ met again in Yalta in February, 1945. Relations again seemed cordial and the three leaders agreed on various key points, such as the formation of the United Nations, punishment of the Nazi war criminals, the division of Germany and Berlin into four zones, the holding of free elections in Eastern Europe. Yet, there were perilous signs foreshadowing the origin of the Cold War as the three disagreed about what was to be done about Poland. Stalin’s demand that the Soviet Union should be given all land east of the Oder-Neisse Line was not taken too favorably by the other two leaders. When they met at Potsdam again in July 1945, relations were not so amicable. Various changes had taken place in the international stage since Yalta. Firstly, the Soviet Union’s Red Army had taken control of the Baltic States under the pretext of liberating them. Secondly, both the United States and Great Britain had different leaders representing them. Attlee replaced Churchill and Truman replaced Roosevelt. Both the new leaders were far more suspicious of Stalin and his ‘red agenda’ than their predecessors had been. Fourthly, the Americans had already tested an atom bomb on July 16, 1945. While Stalin was informed of this development at the conference, the motive behind the Manhatten Project was a manifestation of the suspicion the leaders harbored towards the Communist as they wanted to ensure that Japan was invaded by them and not the Soviet Union. Truman also disagreed with Stalin’s request for a ‘Soviet sphere of influence’ and kept on pressing for free elections in the liberated states of Eastern Europe, which Stalin objected to on grounds of Soviet security. The expansion of the USSR east of the Oder-Neisse line in Poland remained a topic of dispute. The setting up of a government in Poland that recognized all three powers, termed as a ‘Provisional Government of National Unity’ (also known as the Lublin Poles), which effectively rendered the Polish government in exile a thing of the past was another source of conflict. WHO WAS TO BLAME FOR THE COLD WAR? : USA, USSR OR SIMPLE IDEOLOGY? Now, we come to the three schools of thought on the origins of the Cold War. The traditionalists, led by the eminent historian George Kennan believe that the Stalin and USSR were to blame, owing to their agenda, which involved expanding Communism and establishing control over all the Eastern-European tates. In the 1960s and 1970s, Russian historians, who propounded the revisionist view believed that the United States were to blame for the war as the leaders had become paranoid about Communist aggression, whereas Stalin’s motives were purely defensive and the establishment of his ‘sphere of influence’ in Eastern Europ e was justified on grounds that USSR had suffered grave economic losses during the war and it seemed prudent to ensure that neighboring states weren’t hostile. This view became more popular during the 1960s and 1970s as the inherent paranoia regarding both the external and internal Communist Threat, better known as ‘The Red Scare,’ propounded by the Senator Joseph McCarthysubsided in the United States and people become exceptionally critical of American foreign policywith the emergence of the Vietnam War. The third view, which is accepted by most historians across the globe, including this author is the post-revisionist view, which says that it would be unfair to blame the origin of the Cold War on any of the sides without placing equal blame on the other. Furthermore, to fully understand, the causes behind the Cold War, we need to consider a multitude of factors. Firstly, the World War II had a detrimental impact on the economies of both Britain and France and neither of them were the superpowers they had once been. Thus, the USA and the USSR were now the remaining superpowers, two superpowers, which had starkly different and almost contradictory ideologies on government and economics. The Soviet system of government was a Communist one based on the Marxist principles of equality and the welfare state, which involved central planning at the expense of individual freedom. On the other hand, the United States was a capitalist democracy, which espouses the ownership of private wealth, embedded in the pursuit of profits, at the expense of economic disparity. This also led to a breakdown in communication. Every act was construed by the other superpower to be a propaganda move to thwart the other. The Truman Doctrine, which vowed to provide military aid to European states from internal or external aggression and the Marshall Plan, largely responsible for the economic rebuilding of Europe were interpreted, perhaps rightly, by the Soviet Union as means of spreading USA’s capitalist agenda. Stalin responded to the ‘capitalist expansionist’ agenda of the Marshall Plan by setting up the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) to economically aid the members of the Eastern Block. ‘ACTION AND REACTION:COLD WAR CONFLICTS FROM 1945-1960 Each superpower wanted to spread their specific ideology and contain the other’s, which resulted in a number of propaganda measures, alliancesand proxy wars. The first major cold war conflict was the Berlin blockade and airlift of 1948-49. Stalin cut of all transport links to West Berlin, which was under Allied Control, thus cutting of all food supplies to the city. Truman ordered an airlift with food supplies through B-52 bombers, thus ensuring that the population and autonomy of the zone were kept alive. In 1949, Stalin called of the blockade. The ‘iron curtain’-which was a symbol of both ideological and physical division between Eastern and Western Europe became permanent and the arms race started to pick up pace. The western nations were convinced of what a potential threat the Soviets could be, which prompted the USA to supplement its military deployment with political affiliations by signing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in April, 1949, emphasizing the principle of collective self-defense. This, along with the rearmament of The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany, which was in the Allied Zone) was met with the creation of the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The Soviets also set up a Communist Information Bureau (Cominform), which served as a forum that gathered all communist Eastern Bloc nations. Throughout the 1950s, both countries continued to build up their military arsenal- of both conventional and nuclear weapons. This form of action and reaction due to high levels of suspicion and hostility towards the other played a key role in laying the foundations of the Cold War that ensued. The final Cold War Conflict of the 1950s which laid down the foundation for the tension that would exist in a divided Europe for the next forty years was the Berlin Crisis, which ensued from 1958-61. In 1961, The Soviet Union constructed a wall between east and West Germany in the heart of Berlin. Khrushchev claimed that it was an attempt to curb the expansion of western influence of fascist attempting to influence the mindset of the people of East Germany through brainwashing and coercion. However, most historians believe that it was simply an attempt to curb the exodus of many immigrants (a number that has been pegged at 3. 5 million before the construction of The Wall) to West Germany, which was doing much better economically. Throughout the Cold War, the war was a physical representation of the divide across the iron curtain and an emblem of the conflicts that it represented. CONCLUSION: THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND THE BEGINNING OF A NEW WORLD ORDER The years 1945-1960 laid down the foundations for the period of international and diplomatic tensions that would ensue between the two superpowers. While, all-out- war- never broke out, the two countries’ policies of containment and brinksmanship brought them close to it on many occasions, such as during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Of course, the Cuban Missile crisis also helped in improving communication ties and kickstarted the process of arms limitation by the setting up of measures such as the Partial test ban treaty in 1963 and the Moscow-Washington ‘hotline. ’ The period 1969-79 saw a thaw in relations between the two superpowers- a period known as ‘detente’, which ended with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The end of the Cold War, which was marked by the fall of the berlin Wall in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to a ‘new world’ order. In this new era, there has generally been a decrease in inter-state conflicts but other threats to international piece such as conflicts of ethnicity, religion, militancy and terrorism are still rampant. Communal tensions in regions such as Sudan, Somalia and the Congo are latest epitomes of this form of conflict and to truly establish a framework of international piece it will be imperative for national governments, in conjunction with the United Nations to make addressing such issues a priority. BIBLIOGRAPHY Arthur Bliss Lane. I saw Poland betrayed: An American Ambassador Reports to the American People. Indianapolis: TheBobbs-Merrill Company, 1948. pp. 5. Church, George,†Freedom! The Berlin Wall,†Time. Available at:http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,959058,00. html (Accessed 29th September,2012. ) Cleary,Helen and Edwards,Phil (2005),†Fact File:Potsdam Conference. † BBC Archives. Availableat:http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144829. shtml? sectionId=7articleId=1144829 (Accessed 28th September 2012. ) Czechoslovakia: A Country Study†, Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (Washington, D. C. : Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1992. ) Church, George,†Freedom! The Berlin Wall,†Time. Available at:http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,959058,00. html (Accessed 29th September,2012. ) Glass,Andrew (2010)â€Å"Bernard baruch coins the term Cold War. †Politico. Available at: http://www. politico. com/news/stories/0410/35862. html ( Accessed 26th September, 2010. ) Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. pp:10. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 130. Scott,Lenn(2001)International history 1900-90. n Baylis, Jon and Smith, Steve (2001),The globalization of world politics:An introduction to international relations. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. London. pp:55-63. Yilmaz,Muzaffer (2008),†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢The New World Order’:An outline of the Post Cold-War Era,†Turkish Journal of International Relations. v. 7(4) Available at: http://www. altern ativesjournal. net/volume7/Number4/myilmaz. pdf (Accessed 1st October,2012. ) ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Glass,Andrew (2010)â€Å"Bernard baruch coins the term Cold War. †Politico( Accessed 26th September, 2010. [ 3 ]. Ibid [ 4 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4thed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 122. [ 5 ]. Churchill, Winston Spencer (1951). The Second World War: Closing the Ring. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. pp. 642. [ 6 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 123. [ 7 ]. Ibid [ 8 ]. The elections were held during the Conference and Churchill was replaced midway through the Conference. SeeLowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 122. [ 9 ]. Cleary,Helen and Edwards,Phil (2005),†Fact File:Potsdam Conference. † BBC Archives (Accessed 28th September 2012) [ 10 ]. Arthur Bliss Lane. I saw Poland betrayed: An American Ambassador Reports to the American People. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1948. [ 11 ]. Supra note 5 [ 12 ]. ibid [ 13 ]. Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. [ 14 ]. Supra note 5 [ 15 ]. Scott,Lenn(2001)International history 1900-90. in Baylis, Jon and Smith, Steve (2001),The globalization of world politics:An introduction to international relations. 2nded. Oxford University Press. London. pp:55-63. [ 16 ]. â€Å" Czechoslovakia: A Country Study†, Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (Washington, D. C. : Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1992. ) [ 17 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 130. [ 18 ]. Supra note 14 [ 19 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 130. [ 20 ]. Church, George,†Freedom! The Berlin Wall,†Time (Accessed 29th September 2012) [ 21 ]. Supra note 14 [ 22 ]. ibid [ 23 ]. Yilmaz,Muzaffer (2008),†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢The New World Order’:An outline of the Post Cold-War Era,†Turkish Journal of International Relations. v. 7(4) (Accessed 1st October,2012) How to cite Origins and Causes of the Cold War, Essay examples

Origins and Causes of the Cold War Free Essays

————————————————- Why the iron curtain descended: origins and causes of the cold war ROHAN SINGH SEPTEMBER 2012 Name of University: The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences Subject:Political Science Date of Submission:1st October, 2012. â€Å"Why the Iron curtain descended†: A study into the origins and causes of the cold war INTRODUCTION On April 16, 1947, Bernard Baruch, former advisor to former U. S. We will write a custom essay sample on Origins and Causes of the Cold War or any similar topic only for you Order Now Presidents, Harry Truman and Woodrow Wilson came up with the term ‘Cold War’ to describe the breakdown in relations between the two superpowers at the time-the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Historian Walter Lippman, his friend used it in the New York herald Tribune-which marked it’s introduction in popular media. This mutual antagonism between the two nations manifested itself, not in all-out war but in attacks through economic sanctions, proxy wars, the building of alliances propaganda warfare, enmeshed in an overarching principle of non-cooperation. In this context, before delving into the causes, which this essay seeks to do, it is imperative to note that the fact that the two superpowers fought on the same side during World War II was nothing but a ‘marriage of convenience,’ where they were united against the common enemy rather than on grounds of a common cause. The suspicions, ensuing due to the differences in ideology and motives on the global scale had not been occluded by any means, merely erased for the time being. ‘THE BREAKDOWN OF ‘THE MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE’ To fully understand the origins of the Cold War and the breakdown in relations,it is necessary for us to consider the Yalta, Potsdam and Tehran conferences that occurred towards the dying stages of the Second World War. The Tehran Conference held in 1943 was attended by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin and even though, the leaders went to Tehran with different goals in mind, the quintessential objective, which was to open a second front against Germany, was achieved. The ‘big three’ met again in Yalta in February, 1945. Relations again seemed cordial and the three leaders agreed on various key points, such as the formation of the United Nations, punishment of the Nazi war criminals, the division of Germany and Berlin into four zones, the holding of free elections in Eastern Europe. Yet, there were perilous signs foreshadowing the origin of the Cold War as the three disagreed about what was to be done about Poland. Stalin’s demand that the Soviet Union should be given all land east of the Oder-Neisse Line was not taken too favorably by the other two leaders. When they met at Potsdam again in July 1945, relations were not so amicable. Various changes had taken place in the international stage since Yalta. Firstly, the Soviet Union’s Red Army had taken control of the Baltic States under the pretext of liberating them. Secondly, both the United States and Great Britain had different leaders representing them. Attlee replaced Churchill and Truman replaced Roosevelt. Both the new leaders were far more suspicious of Stalin and his ‘red agenda’ than their predecessors had been. Fourthly, the Americans had already tested an atom bomb on July 16, 1945. While Stalin was informed of this development at the conference, the motive behind the Manhatten Project was a manifestation of the suspicion the leaders harbored towards the Communist as they wanted to ensure that Japan was invaded by them and not the Soviet Union. Truman also disagreed with Stalin’s request for a ‘Soviet sphere of influence’ and kept on pressing for free elections in the liberated states of Eastern Europe, which Stalin objected to on grounds of Soviet security. The expansion of the USSR east of the Oder-Neisse line in Poland remained a topic of dispute. The setting up of a government in Poland that recognized all three powers, termed as a ‘Provisional Government of National Unity’ (also known as the Lublin Poles), which effectively rendered the Polish government in exile a thing of the past was another source of conflict. WHO WAS TO BLAME FOR THE COLD WAR? : USA, USSR OR SIMPLE IDEOLOGY? Now, we come to the three schools of thought on the origins of the Cold War. The traditionalists, led by the eminent historian George Kennan believe that the Stalin and USSR were to blame, owing to their agenda, which involved expanding Communism and establishing control over all the Eastern-European tates. In the 1960s and 1970s, Russian historians, who propounded the revisionist view believed that the United States were to blame for the war as the leaders had become paranoid about Communist aggression, whereas Stalin’s motives were purely defensive and the establishment of his ‘sphere of influence’ in Eastern Europ e was justified on grounds that USSR had suffered grave economic losses during the war and it seemed prudent to ensure that neighboring states weren’t hostile. This view became more popular during the 1960s and 1970s as the inherent paranoia regarding both the external and internal Communist Threat, better known as ‘The Red Scare,’ propounded by the Senator Joseph McCarthysubsided in the United States and people become exceptionally critical of American foreign policywith the emergence of the Vietnam War. The third view, which is accepted by most historians across the globe, including this author is the post-revisionist view, which says that it would be unfair to blame the origin of the Cold War on any of the sides without placing equal blame on the other. Furthermore, to fully understand, the causes behind the Cold War, we need to consider a multitude of factors. Firstly, the World War II had a detrimental impact on the economies of both Britain and France and neither of them were the superpowers they had once been. Thus, the USA and the USSR were now the remaining superpowers, two superpowers, which had starkly different and almost contradictory ideologies on government and economics. The Soviet system of government was a Communist one based on the Marxist principles of equality and the welfare state, which involved central planning at the expense of individual freedom. On the other hand, the United States was a capitalist democracy, which espouses the ownership of private wealth, embedded in the pursuit of profits, at the expense of economic disparity. This also led to a breakdown in communication. Every act was construed by the other superpower to be a propaganda move to thwart the other. The Truman Doctrine, which vowed to provide military aid to European states from internal or external aggression and the Marshall Plan, largely responsible for the economic rebuilding of Europe were interpreted, perhaps rightly, by the Soviet Union as means of spreading USA’s capitalist agenda. Stalin responded to the ‘capitalist expansionist’ agenda of the Marshall Plan by setting up the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) to economically aid the members of the Eastern Block. ‘ACTION AND REACTION:COLD WAR CONFLICTS FROM 1945-1960 Each superpower wanted to spread their specific ideology and contain the other’s, which resulted in a number of propaganda measures, alliancesand proxy wars. The first major cold war conflict was the Berlin blockade and airlift of 1948-49. Stalin cut of all transport links to West Berlin, which was under Allied Control, thus cutting of all food supplies to the city. Truman ordered an airlift with food supplies through B-52 bombers, thus ensuring that the population and autonomy of the zone were kept alive. In 1949, Stalin called of the blockade. The ‘iron curtain’-which was a symbol of both ideological and physical division between Eastern and Western Europe became permanent and the arms race started to pick up pace. The western nations were convinced of what a potential threat the Soviets could be, which prompted the USA to supplement its military deployment with political affiliations by signing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in April, 1949, emphasizing the principle of collective self-defense. This, along with the rearmament of The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany, which was in the Allied Zone) was met with the creation of the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The Soviets also set up a Communist Information Bureau (Cominform), which served as a forum that gathered all communist Eastern Bloc nations. Throughout the 1950s, both countries continued to build up their military arsenal- of both conventional and nuclear weapons. This form of action and reaction due to high levels of suspicion and hostility towards the other played a key role in laying the foundations of the Cold War that ensued. The final Cold War Conflict of the 1950s which laid down the foundation for the tension that would exist in a divided Europe for the next forty years was the Berlin Crisis, which ensued from 1958-61. In 1961, The Soviet Union constructed a wall between east and West Germany in the heart of Berlin. Khrushchev claimed that it was an attempt to curb the expansion of western influence of fascist attempting to influence the mindset of the people of East Germany through brainwashing and coercion. However, most historians believe that it was simply an attempt to curb the exodus of many immigrants (a number that has been pegged at 3. 5 million before the construction of The Wall) to West Germany, which was doing much better economically. Throughout the Cold War, the war was a physical representation of the divide across the iron curtain and an emblem of the conflicts that it represented. CONCLUSION: THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND THE BEGINNING OF A NEW WORLD ORDER The years 1945-1960 laid down the foundations for the period of international and diplomatic tensions that would ensue between the two superpowers. While, all-out- war- never broke out, the two countries’ policies of containment and brinksmanship brought them close to it on many occasions, such as during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Of course, the Cuban Missile crisis also helped in improving communication ties and kickstarted the process of arms limitation by the setting up of measures such as the Partial test ban treaty in 1963 and the Moscow-Washington ‘hotline. ’ The period 1969-79 saw a thaw in relations between the two superpowers- a period known as ‘detente’, which ended with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The end of the Cold War, which was marked by the fall of the berlin Wall in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to a ‘new world’ order. In this new era, there has generally been a decrease in inter-state conflicts but other threats to international piece such as conflicts of ethnicity, religion, militancy and terrorism are still rampant. Communal tensions in regions such as Sudan, Somalia and the Congo are latest epitomes of this form of conflict and to truly establish a framework of international piece it will be imperative for national governments, in conjunction with the United Nations to make addressing such issues a priority. BIBLIOGRAPHY Arthur Bliss Lane. I saw Poland betrayed: An American Ambassador Reports to the American People. Indianapolis: TheBobbs-Merrill Company, 1948. pp. 5. Church, George,†Freedom! The Berlin Wall,†Time. Available at:http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,959058,00. html (Accessed 29th September,2012. ) Cleary,Helen and Edwards,Phil (2005),†Fact File:Potsdam Conference. † BBC Archives. Availableat:http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144829. shtml? sectionId=7articleId=1144829 (Accessed 28th September 2012. ) Czechoslovakia: A Country Study†, Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (Washington, D. C. : Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1992. ) Church, George,†Freedom! The Berlin Wall,†Time. Available at:http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,959058,00. html (Accessed 29th September,2012. ) Glass,Andrew (2010)â€Å"Bernard baruch coins the term Cold War. †Politico. Available at: http://www. politico. com/news/stories/0410/35862. html ( Accessed 26th September, 2010. ) Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. pp:10. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 130. Scott,Lenn(2001)International history 1900-90. n Baylis, Jon and Smith, Steve (2001),The globalization of world politics:An introduction to international relations. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. London. pp:55-63. Yilmaz,Muzaffer (2008),†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢The New World Order’:An outline of the Post Cold-War Era,†Turkish Journal of International Relations. v. 7(4) Available at: http://www. altern ativesjournal. net/volume7/Number4/myilmaz. pdf (Accessed 1st October,2012. ) ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Glass,Andrew (2010)â€Å"Bernard baruch coins the term Cold War. †Politico( Accessed 26th September, 2010. [ 3 ]. Ibid [ 4 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4thed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 122. [ 5 ]. Churchill, Winston Spencer (1951). The Second World War: Closing the Ring. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. pp. 642. [ 6 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 123. [ 7 ]. Ibid [ 8 ]. The elections were held during the Conference and Churchill was replaced midway through the Conference. SeeLowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 122. [ 9 ]. Cleary,Helen and Edwards,Phil (2005),†Fact File:Potsdam Conference. † BBC Archives (Accessed 28th September 2012) [ 10 ]. Arthur Bliss Lane. I saw Poland betrayed: An American Ambassador Reports to the American People. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1948. [ 11 ]. Supra note 5 [ 12 ]. ibid [ 13 ]. Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. [ 14 ]. Supra note 5 [ 15 ]. Scott,Lenn(2001)International history 1900-90. in Baylis, Jon and Smith, Steve (2001),The globalization of world politics:An introduction to international relations. 2nded. Oxford University Press. London. pp:55-63. [ 16 ]. â€Å" Czechoslovakia: A Country Study†, Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (Washington, D. C. : Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1992. ) [ 17 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 130. [ 18 ]. Supra note 14 [ 19 ]. Lowe,Norman (2005)Mastering Modern World History. 4th ed. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. London. pp. 130. [ 20 ]. Church, George,†Freedom! The Berlin Wall,†Time (Accessed 29th September 2012) [ 21 ]. Supra note 14 [ 22 ]. ibid [ 23 ]. Yilmaz,Muzaffer (2008),†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢The New World Order’:An outline of the Post Cold-War Era,†Turkish Journal of International Relations. v. 7(4) (Accessed 1st October,2012) How to cite Origins and Causes of the Cold War, Essay examples

Innovation Potential of Industrial Enterprise †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Innovation Potential of Industrial Enterprise. Answer: Introduction: Managing Information System is a project in which an information system will be developed which will help in sharing the information related toenvironmental sustainability aspects (Melton Iles-Smith, 2009). The project is about developing an information system which will help the industries and corporations to take initiative for managing environment and work for the social cause (Miller, 2009). This will help the community and will help the people of Sydney in living a better as well as healthy life. Hence, a report is developed which will include a brief information related to how the project will be developed, what are the aspects which will be required in project development, what will be the time required to be invested in the project means the timescale, analysis of the market which will show the validity and reliability of the project and cost analysis which will help in evaluating all the cost that will incur in the project and the benefits which will be obtained by the proj ect manager by the project initiated (Petit, 2012). The business will be of providing online services in which all the queries related to the environment sustainability will be resolved (Scally, 2015). The project initiated will provide an online plantation nursery in which will provide ahuge variety of the plants. The nursery will help in providing the description of the plants and will provide the reason why they should plant that plant or tree and where they should plant the same. The online website will also provide gardener service and the sales person who will personally assist people for the plantation process and will help them in managing their plantation and taking initiation in environmental sustainability aspects. The business name will be Sustaining Environment, lets seed a sustainable future (Pandey, 2008). Expected Benefits/Current Situations and Market Opportunities Understanding the market and day to day need of the people in thepresent time it could be analyzed that no one has taken such type of initiative. Market Analysis The business proposed is for the environmental sustainability which is also attached with the sustainability of the community (Mainga, 2017). The plan proposed is new as well as innovative as no one is working on such type of project. People available in the market have a very little knowledge about the plants and the type of plant they should plant in their backyard or garden area. The proposed business plan will definitely attract many of the big industries and will help in attracting people towards the same (Gunawan, 2015). Such type of business proposals are unique and are helpful for the society as well as environment. The proposed project has a huge scope in the market. People available in the market prefer to plant trees in the society in which they are living. They prefer to plant tree in their backyards also there is a culture of tree plantation in industries and big firms. Hence, if the promotion of the website will be done in an effective way then definitely people will get attracted towards it and will ensure to provide an opportunity for the growth. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Innovative plan Low competition Growing industry Government will help in funding aspects Low knowledge about the concept will affect the sale. Requires huge investment It is necessary a proper space should be availed for plantation of various trees and plants (Larson, Elizabeth, Richard, 2014) Availability of proper set of resources is very low in this industry OPPORTUNITIES THREATS The Huge scope is there in the market due to less competition. Advertising will help in attracting more people towards the website. More scope in other parts of the country once the business will get apositive response in Sydney (Gladden, 2012). There are huge numbers of people who can enter into the business. This will have a huge impact on the business It will be hard to spread the information in each and every home and industry in Sydney. This will have a huge impact on the progress of the company In short it could be summarized that there are various set of opportunities available in the market for this project. People are getting motivated towards environmental sustainability and are indulged in the practices of planting more trees (Fraser Ormiston, 2016). In this case with the help of the promotion assistance will be provided to the people and motivation will be provided so that they could indulge in the practices of planting more trees and could get attracted towards the project initiated. Target market for the project proposed is the urban areas and industrial areas. People in the urban areas do not have time for such activities but they want greenery in their surroundings (Dontoh, Ronen Sarath, 2013). Hence, the company will provide full assistance and help in planting more trees. Dis-benefits attached with the project are lack of knowledge, people available in the market does not have proper knowledge of the online websites for such aspects. It could affect the sale of the company. It could also be possible that the industries would not provide any order as they do not prefer to visit the websites and book the trees. To manage the orders from industries it is required that a person should visit them and provide information related with the website then it will be possible to gain orders from the industries (Amiram, Bozanic Rouen, 2015). The Benefits Review Plan There are various set of benefits which are attached to the plan of theonline nursery. This will help in attracting maximum number towards the website. Government will also take initiative for the noble cause (Kaczmarska Gierulski, 2015) This will help in spreading information related toenvironment sustainability This will help the society in sustainability aspects and will help the people in understanding why they should plant trees in the place nearby them or at their homes. The review plan also includes estimating whether the money invested will be returned after the project will be introduced to the general public (Li, 2012). It is also required to be taken into consideration that in what time the money will get returned after making the investments Evaluation of the benefits that the community will have with this project is also required to be done. The time plan developed will help in evaluating the time which will indulge in processing the project tasks. It will help in ensuring that all the activities of the project could get completed within the date decided. In this Gantt chart will be provided to ensure that the project could get managed in the way decided by the project manager (Mller, 2007). The project of developing an online website will get completed in 2 months but the process of theplantation of trees and developing a proper setup of thenursery will require approximately 1 year. This time will work as an investment for the trees, but in this one-year distribution of the small plants and seeds will remain continued. Such type of activity will help in the promotional aspects of the company which will provide a better set of support for the goodwill of the company. There are several sets of milestones which were developed for the project (Skonieczny, et. al., 2017). This will help in managing the things in a better and appropriate way. There are certain set of milestones which are set for the project. These milestone will help in managing the things in a better way and will help in managing all the tasks in manner which is required. In the above Gantt Chart the major milestones are project management, development of project plan, project scheduling, time keeping, technical design, data import and export, document designing, testing websites, training and gathering customer reviews. The cost that will incur in the development of the project is $60000 which includes all the expenses from availing the area of thenursery to the plants, seeds, wages of the gardeners and the expenses which will incur in the project development (Hunter, et. al., 2011).Although the project will be developed in $36000 and the rest $24000 will be kept for the nursery. The project development includes such a huge amount because the IT team that will be hired for the project development requires huge amount also advertisement and promotion of the project will also be included in the website development aspects. The cost also includes the expenses which will incur in the selection of the appropriate tool as well as thecost that will indulge in using that particular tool. Salary of the analyst as well as expenses incurred in the purchase of the systems will also be included in the expenses estimated for the project (Kerans, 2014). Cost Benefit Analysis Cost benefit analysis tool will be used so as to calculate the expenses which will incur in the project (Melton Iles-Smith, 2009). The reason behind using the tool is that it will help in gathering information related to the expenses which will incur in the project development and benefits which will be gained after the development of the same. Cost benefit analysis helps in availing both the information in which qualitative, as well as quantitative data, will gather with the effect of which a direction will be provided of whether to work on the project or not (Miller, 2009). Investment appraisal will help in determining the expenses which will incur in the development of the project and the benefits which will be availed by the company to the company. In this evaluation of the Net Present Value, Return on Investment and Payback Analysis will be done (Petit, 2012). These aspects will help in managing the expenses and will help in evaluating the benefits that the organization will get after thedevelopment of the project. Net present value is the indicator of profitability or loss in the undertaken project in real value terms. Cost benefit analysis was done and with the help of the analysis, it got to know that the NPV of the project is positive which means that the project will be beneficial for the organization. The rate of return calculated is 0.26 which shows that the project on which the company is working will not provide an effective return (Pandey, 2008). Rate of return of the project can be defined as the rate (in percentage terms) that will be earned by business organisation from the undertaken project or investment. Since, rate of return from the undertaken project is 0.26 or 26 %, it shows acceptable level as compared to other projects. The payback period calculated is 3 years which means that the organisation will get the total amount returned in 3 years. Payback period shows liquidity of the undertaken project and in this project liquidity is at acceptable i.e. initial investment or cash outflow will be received within 3 years. Majaor Risks The risk is involved in each and every aspects of the project. At every step of the project, one or the other risk remain attached (Mainga, 2017). These risks could have a huge impact on the progress of the project. It is required that all the risk factors which could incur in near future should be taken into consideration, doing so will help in processing the project in a smooth manner and will help in removing all the vulnerabilities which could incur in near future. Availability of appropriate resources is one of the prime risks which remain attached to the project. It is necessary that proper set of resources should be availed because failing to do so will have a huge impact on the progress of the project (Gunawan, 2015). Availability of funds is another risk factor which remains attached to the project. It is important that proper amount of funds should remain availed. Unavailability of funds will lead to affect the progress of the project. Lack of resources is another risk factor attached to the project management aspects. Market fluctuations will also have a huge impact on the project as it could be possible that market would not provide anappropriate response for the proposed project (Larson, Elizabeth, Richard, 2014). Lack of leadership will also have a huge impact on the progress of the project and will hinder in delivering quality to the project. These were some of the risk factors which will have a huge impact on the project. It is necessary that all these risk factors should be taken into consideration by the project manager as it will help in developing the strategies and plans with the effect of which chances of the occurrence of the risk will reduce. It is necessary that proper planning of the project should be done; planning will help in forecasting the risk factors which could occur in near future and will help in developing the strategies for minimizing the chances of risk occurrence (Gladden, 2012). Conclusion With the help of the project developed on Sustainable Environment, it could be concluded that a project requires in-depth analysis of all the aspects which could incur in the project. It is necessary that prime focus should remain with developing a unique and full proof plan for the project. The plan should include discussion of all the internal as well as external factors. Such type of activity ensures to provide a better support to the project manager to process the project. It is necessary that all the risk factors attached to the project should be evaluated. This will help in developing the strategies and will provide a suitable support for the progress of the project. Developing strategies and timescale will help the project manager in dividing the work and managing the priorities. Also, it is important that cost benefit analysis of the project aspects should be done because it helps in managing the project aspects and provide a better support to the manager to manage the same i n an effective as well as in an efficient manner. References Gladden, R. (2012). The Project Risk Maturity Model: Measuring and Improving Risk Management Capability.Project Management Journal,43(5), 101-101. Gunawan, I. (2015). Analysis of education and practical relevance of project management topics in New Zealand.International Journal of Project Organisation and Management,7(2), 174. Hunter, L., Myles, J., Worthington, J., Lebrun, M. (2011). Leading Quality through the Development of a Multi-year Corporate Quality Plan: Sharing The Ottawa Hospital Experience.Healthcare Quarterly,14(2), 32-38. Kaczmarska, B., Gierulski, W. (2015). Innovation Map in the Process of Enterprise Evaluation.Key Engineering Materials, 669, 497-513. Kerans, A. (2014). Project-based management technique for radio-frequency spectrum planning and allocation: Part Two: The project management plan.Australian Journal Of Telecommunications And The Digital Economy,2(4), 187-188. Larson, Elizabeth, Richard. (2014). Requirements Management, Part 1: Requirements Planning. London: Watermark Learning, Inc. Li, J. (2012). The Innovation and Construction of Enterprise Information Management Mode in the Era of Cloud Computing.Advanced Engineering Forum, 6-7, 143-148. Mainga, W. (2017). Examining project learning, project management competencies and project efficiency in project-based firms (PBFs).International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 10(3), 122-133. Melton, T., Iles-Smith, P. (2009).Managing project delivery(1st ed.). Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. Miller, D. (2009).Building a Project Work Breakdown Structure. Boca Raton: Auerbach Publications. Mller, C. (2007). Process innovation laboratory: a new approach to business process innovation based on enterprise information systems.Enterprise Information Systems, 1(1), 113-128. Pandey, D. (2008).Rural project management. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers. Petit, Y. (2012). Advancing project and portfolio management research: applying strategic management theories.Strategic Direction, 28(9), 187-192. Scally, W. (2015). Project Workflow Management: A Business Process Approach.Project Management Journal, 46(3), 1-2. Skonieczny, J., Vagonova, O., Vilyanskiy, A. (2017). Evaluation of the Innovation Potential of an Industrial Enterprise.Advanced Engineering Forum, 22, 143-150. Xue, C., Xu, Y. (2017). Influence Factor Analysis of Enterprise IT Innovation Capacity Based on System Dynamics.Procedia Engineering, 174, 232-239.